Educational Resources

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FDA Upscheduling of Hydrocodone and the effect on Nurse Practitioner Pain Management Practices 

Advanced practice registered nurses are expert clinicians who take a comprehensive approach to healthcare, using clinical expertise to diagnose and treat health conditions in primary, acute and specialty care settings with a focus on disease prevention and health management. The APRN’s scope of practice varies by state, with autonomous practice in only 24 states. These clinicians have lobbied for a unified Consensus Model for independent practice across the United States allowing them to practice to their full educational level. A recent change in narcotic medication scheduling has created yet another barrier for APRNs.

Early in 2013 the FDA advisory committee determined that hydrocodone-combination medications needed tighter regulation due to their high abuse potential and recommended upscheduling HCMs from Schedule III to II. This phenomenological research study examined the upscheduling of HCMs and its effect on APRNs’ pain-management practices. Themes identified were barriers to effective pain management, APRN regulation, and alternative therapies. Sub-themes included increased referrals, limited treatment options, increased healthcare costs, on-site physicians, regulatory practice, and complementary and interventional medicine.

Similar research studies should be conducted, focusing on the pain-management practices of APRNs while regulating agencies work together to transform these practices. It is important that APRNs educate the public and other healthcare providers on the importance of consistent APRN regulations in each state.

This activity is approved for 3.0 contact hour(s) of continuing education (which includes 3.0 hours of pharmacology) by the American Association of Nurse Practitioners. Activity ID 17092840. This activity was planned in accordance with AANP CE Standards and Policies.



Click Here to Access the Post-Test/Survey

Presented by: Rachel Mack

Rachel Mack, PhD, DNP, APRN, C-FNP, CNE is an assistant professor at Frontier Nursing University and has been a nurse practitioner for seven years. She received her PhD and DNP from Oklahoma City University and her MSN from Frontier Nursing University. Her clinical experience focuses on rural primary health care and prescription drug abuse. Today, Dr. Mack spends the majority of her time teaching at Frontier Nursing University. In her free time she enjoys reading cozy mysteries and snuggling with her cats.



Pharmacology Update: What’s New for Women in Primary Care Practice

This continuing education session will allow you to discuss changes in current medications prescribed for women in primary care, distinguish pertinent pharmacokinetics for current medications used in the primary care of women and interpret clinical applications for current medications used in the primary care of women.

The CE session video will be available on this web page until October 12, 2018. All FNU alumni, students, faculty, preceptors, and friends are invited to participate in this CE session. The continuing education activity has been approved by AANP for 3.0 Pharmacology CE units. (Program ID#16102372) 

Once you have viewed the session, you must complete the post-test and evaluation at the link below in order to receive credit for your contact hours. If you have questions about completion of the activity or the form provided below, please contact


Supplemental Documents


Click Here to Access the Post-Test/Survey


Presented By: Dr. Todd Carter



Dr. Todd Carter is an Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice with the Appalachian College of Pharmacy and has been with the college since the Fall of 2008.

Dr. Carter is a native of Hazard, KY and graduated with a doctorate degree in pharmacy from the University of Kentucky in 2000. He has practical work experience in retail pharmacy, both large chain and small independent, as well as outpatient, ambulatory care pharmacy. Dr. Carter has worked to serve the Appalachian population both in Southeastern Kentucky as well as Southeastern Virginia. A majority of his efforts focus on diabetes care providing; medication, education, ABI screenings, diabetic foot exams and diabetic shoes.

In his spare time Dr. Carter enjoys spending time with his wife Davida, their daughter Haley, and their puppies Coco and Kisses. He also enjoys riding his motorcycle around our beautiful mountains and around the country and donating time to local and national charities.


If you would like to support the Alumni Association and future programs like this, please make a donation today by clicking the link below.

FREE clinical education session through the

American College of Nurse Midwives (ACNM)

This continuing education activity has been approved by ACNM for 1.0 continuing education units (CEUs) (10 contact hours) and will be available online through December 2017. 

Articles included in this CEU activity. (You may find more details here.)

  • Midwifing the Student: Creating an Effective Learning Environment
  • Precepting 101: Teaching Strategies and Tips for Success for Preceptors
  • Collaborative and Bidirectional Feedback Between Students and Clinical Preceptors: Promoting Effective Communication Skills on Health Care Teams
  • Identifying and Addressing Problems for Student Progression in Midwifery Clinical Education
  • Precepting Challenge: Helping the Student Attain the Affective Skills of a Good Midwife

Instructions to access the CEU activity:

  • Please visit the JMWH CEU site; on the upper right-hand side of the screen, create or login with your JMWH CEU account information. Once you are logged into the JMWH CEU page, click on “Clinical Education” activity.
  • You will then be automatically re-directed to a payment screen. Here, click on “Use a Discount Code,” and enter the following code: JMWHFRONT
  • Proceed with the activity by clicking on the tabs in order from left to right (Activity Overview, Activity Material, Assessment, Evaluation, and Certificate).

We hope you enjoy this complimentary CEU that is offered through ACNM.